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子女变更姓氏的相关规定

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发表于 2011-9-17 14:51:43 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
< class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">父母一方擅自变更未成年子女姓名,在现实生活中,多发生在夫妻离婚后,获得抚养未成年子女的一方,在未征得对方许可的情况下,擅自将未成年子女的姓名予更改。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-comfficeffice" /><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P>< class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">一、法律规定</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P>< class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman"><</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">一</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">> </FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">中华人民共和国婚姻法第</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">二十二条</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">子女可以随父姓,可以随母姓。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P>< class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman"><</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">二</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">></FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">最高人民法院印发《关于人民法院审理离婚案件处理子女抚养问题的若干具体意见》的通知</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">19</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">、父母不得因子女变更姓氏而拒付子女抚育费。父或母一方擅自将子女姓氏改为继母或继父姓氏而引起纠纷的,应责令恢复原姓氏。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P>< class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman"><</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">三</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">></FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">最高人民法院关于变更子女姓氏问题的复函(</SPAN><?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-comffice:smarttags" /><st1:chsdate w:st="on" IsROCDate="False" IsLunarDate="False" Day="14" Month="8" Year="1981"><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">1981</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">8</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">月</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">14</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">日</SPAN></st1:chsdate><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">)</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P>< class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">辽宁省高级人民法院:</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P>< class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">你院〔</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">1981</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">〕民复字</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">2</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">号关于变更子女姓氏纠纷处理问题的来函收悉。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P>< class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">据来文所述,陈森芳(男方)与傅家顺于</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">1979</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">10</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">月经鞍山市中级人民法院判决离婚。婚生子陈昊彬(当年七岁)判归傅家顺抚养,由陈森芳每月负担抚养费十二元。现因傅家顺变更了陈昊彬的姓名而引起纠纷。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P>< class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">我们基本同意你院意见。傅家顺在离婚后,未征得陈森芳同意,单方面决定将陈昊彬的姓名改变傅伟继,这种做法是不当的。现在陈森芳既不同意给陈昊彬更改姓名,应说服傅家顺恢复儿子原来姓名。但</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">婚姻法</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">第十六条</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">规定“子女可以随父姓,也可以随母姓”。认为子女只能随父姓,不能随母姓的思想是不对的。因此而拒付子女抚养费是违反</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">婚姻法的。如陈森芳坚持拒付抚养费,应按</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">婚姻法</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">第</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">三十五条</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">的规定,予以强制执行。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P>< class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">二、</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">孩子改名后,父亲或母亲仍应该支付抚养费。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P><P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">父母离婚后,父母子女关系依然存在,即便孩子改随他姓,这种父母子女关系也没有发生变化,父亲对改名后的孩子仍然负有抚养义务。最高人民法院</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">1993</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">11</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">月发布的《关于人民法院审理离婚案件处理子女抚养问题的若干具体意见》第十九条规定:“父母不得因子女变更姓氏而拒付子女抚育费。”根据上述规定,孩子改名后,父亲或母亲应该继续支付抚养费,不得以孩子已经改名为由抗辩。该条同时规定,父或母一方擅自将子女姓氏改为继母或继父姓氏而引起纠纷的,应责令恢复原姓氏。但这必须以诉讼为前提。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P><P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">三</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">、变更未成年子女姓名权</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P><P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">《民法通则》第</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">99</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">条第</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">1</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">款规定:“公民享有姓名权,有权决定、使用和依照规定改变自己的姓名,禁止他人干涉、盗用、假冒”。姓名权是一项重要的人格权,主要包括姓名决定权、姓名使用权、姓名变更权。未成年子女属于限制民事行为能力人或者无民事行为能力人。具体到姓名权尤其是姓名决定权、姓名变更权上,</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">“子女出生及其未成年时期,其姓名的选择是父母基于亲权决定的”。父母代为行使未成年子女的姓名决定权、变更权的权利,即为未成年子女命名权。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P><P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">对于刚出生及无民事行为能力之未成年人,姓名及变更由父母决定。所有未成年子女的姓名权均由其父母代为行使。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P><P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">子女姓氏一旦确定,父母任何一方都不得单方改变。即使父母双方离婚后,子女同一方共同生活,同子女生活的一方也不得单方改变子女的姓氏。根据有关司法解释,离婚后,一方再婚而未征得生父或生母同意,擅自将子女改为继母或继父姓氏,而引起子女抚养纠纷诉至法院的,法院可以责令恢复子女原姓氏。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P><P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">四、成年子女有权决定自己的姓氏</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P><P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">子女一旦具有了完全民事行为能力(即年满</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">18</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">周岁,或虽未年满</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">18</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">周岁,但已满</SPAN><SPAN lang=EN-US><FONT face="Times New Roman">16</FONT></SPAN><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">周岁且以自己劳动收入为主要生活来源),则子女有权决定、使用和依照规定改变自己姓名的权利,禁止他人干涉、盗用、假冒自己的姓氏的权利。父母双方不得进行干涉,不得强迫更改子女姓氏或强迫子女不得更改姓氏。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P><P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">五、判例</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P><P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">判例一:某女与其夫离婚后,更改了由其抚养的儿子的姓名。此案经西安市未央区法院审理认为,“子女随父姓或随母姓,应由夫妻双方协商,子女有表达能力的,还应尊重子女的意见。女方在未与男方协商的情况下,单方改变子女姓和名,没有法律依据,显系不当。故判决女方必须在判决生效后,一日内恢复其子女的原姓名”。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P><P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">判例二:河南省西峡县对类似案件的判决是“婚姻法规定子女可以随父姓,也可以随母姓,女方并未侵犯男方的任何权利”。故判决驳回男方恢复子女原姓氏的诉讼请求。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P><P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">判例三:广州市中级法院对类似案件的判决是,“孩子的名字是出生时双方确定的,虽然夫妻已离婚,但仍需遵守双方的原约定。法院支持男方的部分请求,判决将子女的名字恢复原名,姓氏随母”。</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> <SPAN lang=EN-US><o:p></o:p></SPAN></FONT></P><P class=MsoNormal style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 21pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2&#46;0"><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">判例四:</SPAN><FONT face="Times New Roman"> </FONT><SPAN style="FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-hansi-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">某地一审法院对类似案件判决子女可随父姓,也可随母姓,驳回男方的诉讼请求。二审法院判决维持了一审判决。但是男方申诉后,法院又将此案发回再审,案件审理了三年,仍无结果。</SPAN></P>
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